Developing an ASP.NET MVC app with Azure Active Directory: an ordeal

Regular readers will know that I am working on a simple (I thought) ASP.NET MVC application which is hosted on Azure and uses Azure Blob Storage.

So far so good; but since this business uses Office 365 it seemed to me logical to have users log in using Azure Active Directory (AD). Visual Studio 2013, with the latest update, has a nice wizard to set this up. Just complete the following dialog when starting your new project:

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This worked fairly well, and users can log in successfully using Azure AD and their normal Office 365 credentials.

I love this level of integration and it seems to me key and strategic for the Microsoft platform. If an employee leaves, or changes role, just update Active Directory and all application access comes into line automatically, whether on premise or in the cloud.

The next stage though was to define some user types; to keep things simple, let us say we have an AppAdmin role for users with full access to the application, and an AppUser role for users with limited access. Other users in the organisation do not need access at all and should not be able to log in.

The obvious way to do this is with AD groups, but I was surprised to discover that there is no easy way to discover to which groups an AD user belongs. The Azure AD integration which the wizard generates is only half done. Users can log in, and you can programmatically retrieve basic information including the firstname, lastname, User Principal Name and object ID, but nothing further.

Fair enough, I thought, there will be some libraries out there that fill the gap; and this is how the nightmare begins. The problem is that this is the cutting edge of .NET cloud development and is an area of rapid change. Yes there are samples out there, but each one (including the official ones on MSDN) seems to be written at a different time, with a different approach, with different .NET assembly dependencies, and varying levels of alpha/beta/experimental status.

The one common thread is that to get the AD group information you need to use the Graph API, a REST API for querying and even writing to Azure Active Directory. In January 2013, Microsoft identity expert Vittorio Bertocci (Principal Program Manager in the Windows Azure Active Directory team at Microsoft) wrote a helpful post about how to restore IsInRole() and [Authorize] in ASP.NET apps using Azure AD – exactly what I wanted to do. He describes essentially a manual approach, though he does make use of a library called Azure Authentication Library (AAL) which you can find on Nuget (the package manager for .NET libraries used by Visual Studio) described as a Beta.

That would probably work, but AAL is last year’s thing and you are meant to use ADAL (Active Directory Authentication Library) instead. ADAL is available in various versions ranging from 1.0.3 which is a finished release, to 2.6.2 which is an alpha release. Of course Bertocci has not updated his post so you can use the obsolete AAL beta if you dare, or use ADAL if you can figure out how to amend the code and which version is the best/safest to employ. Or you can write your own wrapper for the Graph API and bypass all the Nuget packages.

I searched for a better sample, but it gets worse. If you browse around MSDN you will probably come across this article along with this sample which is a Task Tracker application using Azure AD, though note the warnings:

NOTE: This sample is outdated. Its technology, methods, and/or user interface instructions have been replaced by newer features. To see an updated sample that builds a similar application, see WebApp-GraphAPI-DotNet.

Despite the warnings, the older sample is widely referenced in Microsoft posts like this one by Rick Anderson.

OK then, let’s look at at the shiny new sample, even though it is less well documented. It is called WebApp-GraphAPI-DotNet and includes code to get the user profile, roles, contacts and groups from Azure AD using the latest Graph API client: Microsoft.Azure.ActiveDirectory.GraphClient. This replaces an older effort called the GraphHelper which you will find widely used elsewhere.

If you dig into this new sample though, you will find a ton of dependencies on pre-release assemblies. You are not just dealing the Graph API, but also with OWIN (Open Web Interface for .NET), which seems to be Microsoft’s current direction for communication between web applications.

After messing around with Nuget packages and trying to get WebApp-GraphAPI-DotNet working I realised that I was not happy with all this preview code which is likely to break as further updates come along. Further, it does far more than I want. All I need is actually contained in Bertocci’s January 2013 post about getting back IsInRole.

I ended up patching together some code using the older GraphHelper (as found in the obsolete Task Tracker application) and it is working. I can now use IsInRole based on AD groups.

This is a mess. It is a simple requirement and it should not be necessary to plough through all these complicated and conflicting documents and samples to achieve it.

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